Biography of Carla Braitenberg

With the Vordiplom in Physics of the University of Tübingen, CB accomplished the Laurea with summa cum laude in Physics with a thesis entitled "Geophysical effects in the gravitational waves antenna: the GEOGRAV Experiment" and the PhD in Geophysics with a thesis entitled "Time-spatial variations of some physical parameters in the seismic Friuli area (Italy)", both at the University of Trieste. CB presently holds a tenure assistant professor position at the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Trieste. CB speaks and writes fluently in Italian, German and English.

She has worked on several issues concerning the interpretation of the measurements of the strain- and tiltmeters of the Friuli (NE-Italy) strain-tiltmeter network. In particular she was interested in the observation of earth tides parameters and their variation in time, the hydrologic induced deformations and their relation to the local seismicity. An innovative approach for the modeling of the hydrologic effects in deformation measurements was developped, and it was shown that in the Friuli area this effect is very strong and must be taken into account, before any geophysical interpretation can be made with the measurements.

A further topic of interest has been the study of the structure of the entire crust (superficial and deep properties) and lithosphere applying different investigative methods which rely on the interpretation or inversion of the electromagnetic and the gravity field. Particular interest relies on all techniques of gravity 3D inversion and modelling, and inversion methodologies have been developped. The applicability of the methods is very broad, and ranges from superficial masses as cavities or sedimentary basins to deep structures as the Moho undulations at the base of the crust. The isostatic flexure models comprise a more recent topic of interest, and a new high resolution approach has been developped, that is partcularly apt for modeling and inverting spatial variations of elastic flexural properties of the crust. The combination of gravity inversion/modeling and flexural isostatic models form a powerful method for the formation of models of the upper earth layers. Areas of study include the Alps, the Kohistan Arch, the Tibet-Quinghai plateau and Eastern Brazil.


Tel.: (+39) 0405582258

Responsible for International student/teacher exchange programs between the Trieste University and Foreign University/Institutions:


Friedrich Schiller Universität Jena

Freie Universität Berlin

Chinese Academy of Sciences: Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Wuhan


CB presently is in charge of the institutional courses:


Braitenberg C. (1988). Influences of the eigenvibrations of the earth on the gravitational wave antenna. Proceedings of the 8th Italian Conference on General Relativity and Gravitational Physics, Cavalese (Trento), August 30 - September 3.

Braitenberg C. (1990). Influence of the eigenvibrations of the earth on the gravitational wave antenna. Acta Geoph.Pol., XXXVIII, 12, 1.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (1990). The magnetotelluric campaign in the eastern alps, NE-Italy: regional and local 2-D responses of the seismic zone. Boll.Geof.Teor.Appl., XXXII, 126.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (1990). Magnetotellurica nel Friuli sismico- Problemi ed interessi di una campagna in una zona non priva di rumore ambientale. Atti del 2° Convegno Nazionale di Geo-Elettro-Magnetismo, Palermo 13-15 Settembre 1990.

Zadro M., Braitenberg C., Bardelli M., Mao W.J. (1992). 13 anni di registrazioni estensimetriche nel Friuli sismico. (Riassunto esteso). CNR, Gruppo Nazionale di Geofisica della Terra Solida, Atti del 11° Convegno Nazionale, Roma, 9-11 Dicembre,1992. p.141-144.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M., Bardelli M., Mao W.J. (1993). Variations od tidal responses in a seismic region: the Friuli-NE Italy case. (Extended abstract). The 12th International Symposium on Earth Tides. Aug.4-7, 1993, Beijing, China, p.60-61.

Braitenberg C., Ebblin C., Zadro M., Nagy I. (1993). Variazioni della falda acquifera ed osservazioni clino/estensimetriche. (Riassunto Esteso) CNR, Gruppo Nazionale di Geofisica della Terra Solida, Atti del 12° Convegno Nazionale, Roma, 24-26 Novembre 1993. Nota N.101.

Braitenberg C., Capuano P., Gasparini P., Zadro M. (1994). Interpretation of long period MT soundings in Friuli (NE-Italy) and the electrical characteristics of the lithosphere. International Journ. Geoph., 117 , 196-204.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M., Bardelli M., Mao W.J (1995). Variations of tidal responses in a seismic region: the Friuli-NE Italy case. Ed. H.T. Hsu: Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Earth Tides. Aug.4-7, 1993, Beijing, China, p.395-401. Science Press, New York.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (1995). La rete clino-estensimetrica del Friuli nello studio dei precursori sismici a medio e breve termine. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei: Terremoti in Italia: previsione e prevenzione dei danni. Roma, 1-2 dicembre, 1994. 279-284.

Dal Moro G., Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (1995). Caratteristiche meccaniche crostali nelle alpi sud-orientali tratte da interpretazione gravimetrica sulla base di due profili sismici. CNR, Gruppo Nazionale di Geofisica della Terra Solida, Atti del 13° Convegno Nazionale, Roma, 28-30 Novembre 1994. 85-86.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (1996). The iterative signal enhancing method for determining magnetotelluric impedance. Annali di Geofisica, XXXIX, N.1, 101-107.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (1996). Strain, Seismicity and Rain. Proceedings of the XXIV General Assembly of the European Seismological Commission, 19-24 September 1994, Athens, Greece, 1216-1224.

Braitenberg C., Pettenati F., Zadro M. (1997). Spectral and classical methods in the evaluation of Moho undulations from gravity data: the NE-Italian Alps and isostasy. (PDF file, 849 KB) Journal of Geodynamics, 23, 5-22.

Zadro M., Braitenberg C. (1997). Spectral methods in gravity inversion: the geopotential field and its derivatives. Annali di Geofisica. Vol. XL, Nr. 5, 1433-1443.

Braitenberg C., Garavaglia M., Magnoni S., Zadro M. (1997). Radon and crustal deformation continuous monitoring in the seismic area of Friuli, North-Eastern Italy. Proceedings of the 3rd International Colloquium on rare gas geochemistry: predictability of earthquakes. Amritsar (India), Dec. 10-14, 1995. 125-137.

Braitenberg C., Dal Moro G., Rossi R. (1997). Deformazioni crostali nell'area sismica del Friuli: modelli teorici ed osservazioni. Atti del Convegno La Scienza e i Terremoti, Udine 14-15 Novembre 1996. Forum (Udine), 81-85.

Garavaglia M., Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (1998). Radon monitoring in a cave of North-Eastern Italy. (PDF file, 303 KB) Phys. Chem. Earth, 23, 949-952.

Dal Moro G., Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (1998). Geometry and mechanical and crustal properties in NE Italy based on seismic and gravity data. Bolletino di Gofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Vol. 39, N.1, 37-46.

Braitenberg C., Drigo R. (1998). A crustal model from gravity inversion in Karakorum. Proceedings of the Int. Symp. on Current crustal movement and hazard reduction in East Asia and South-East Asia, Wuhan, November 4-7, 1997. 325-341.

Garavaglia M., Braitenberg C., Zadro M., Quattrocchi F. (1999). Radon measurements in soil and water in the seismic Friuli area. Il Nuovo Cimento, 22, 415-422.

Braitenberg C. (1999). Estimating the hydrologic induced signal in geodetic measurements with predicitive filtering methods.(PDF file 446 KB)  Geophys. Res. Letters, 26, 775-778.

Zadro M., Braitenberg C. (1999). Measurements and interpretations of tilt-strain gauges in seismically active areas. (PDF file, 3,9 MB) Earth Science Reviews, 47, 151-187.

Braitenberg C. (1999). The Friuli (NE Italy) tilt/strain gauges and short term observations. Annali di Geofisica ,42, 1-28.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (1999). The Grotta Gigante horizontal pendulums – instrumentation and observations. Boll. Geof. Teor. Appl., Vol. 40, N°. 3/4, 577-582.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (1999). Iterative 3D gravity inversion with integration of seismologic data. (PDF file, 415 KB) Boll. Geof. Teor. Appl., Vol. 40, N°. 3/4, 469-476.

Braitenberg C. (1999). The hydrologic induced strain - a review. Marees Terrestres Bulletin d'Informations, 131, 1071-1081.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M., Fang J., Wang Y., Hsu H.T. (2000). Gravity inversion in Quinghai-Tibet plateau. (PDF file, 645 KB) Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 25/4, 381-386.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M., Fang J., Wang Y., Hsu H. T. (2000). The gravity and isostatic Moho undulations in Qinghai-Tibet plateau. (PDF file, 1.2 MB) Journal of Geodynamics 30/5, 489-505.

Braitenberg C. (2000). Non-random spectral components in the seismicity of NE Italy. (PDF file, 723 KB) Earth Planet. Science Lett., 179/2, 379-390.

Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (2000). Misure di deformazione con pendoli giganti, clinometri ed estensimetri a Trieste e nel Friuli sismico. Soc. Geologica Italiana, Guida alle escursioni, 80a Riunione estiva, Trieste, 6-8 settembre 2000, Ed.: B. Carulli, 307-313.

Ebbing J., Braitenberg C., Götze H.-J. (2001). Forward and inverse modelling of gravity revealing insight into crustal structures of the eastern Alps.(PDF file, 1006 KB) Tectonophysics, 337, 191-208.

Braitenberg C., Nagy I., Negusini M., Romagnoli C., Zadro M., Zerbini S. (2001). Geodetic measurements at the northern border of the Adria plate. (PDF file, 807 KB) Millennium Issue of the Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 32, N. 1/2, 267-286

Braitenberg C., Ebbing J., Götze H.-J. (2002). Inverse modeling of elastic thickness by convolution method - the eastern Alps as a case example. (PDF file, 2472 KB) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 202, 387-404. 

Braitenberg C., Wang Y., Fang J., Hsu H. T. (2003) Spatial Variations of flexure parameters over the Tibet-Quinghai Plateau, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 205, 211-224.(PDF file,1046 KB)

Götze H.-J., Schmidt S., Braitenberg, C. (2003) A new buried Maar near Kreckwitz (East-Saxony)? Z. geol. Wiss., Berlin, 31, 4-6: 343-352.

Braitenberg, C., Pagot, E., Wang, Y., Fang,J. (2004) Bathymetry and crustal thickness variations from gravity inversion and flexural isostasy, in: Satellite Altimetry for Geodesy, Geophysics and Oceanography, C. Hwang, C.K. Shum, J. Li (Eds.), Springer Verlag, 143-149.

Braitenberg C., Nagy I., Romeo G., Taccetti Q. (2004) The very broad-band data acquisition of the long-base tiltmeters of Grotta Gigante (Trieste, Italy) in: Progress in Geodesy and Geodynamics, Zhu Yaozhong and Sun Heping (Eds.), 457-462, Hubei Science and Technology Press, Wuhan.

Braitenberg C., Nagy I., Papacchioli S. (2004) Pendoli geodetici per registrare le deformazioni della Grotta Gigante, Rassegna tenica del Friuli Venezia Giulia, Anno LV, Luglio/Agosto 2004, 16-20.

Caporali A., Braitenberg C., Massironi M. (2005) Geodetic and hydrological aspects of the Merano earthquake of 17 July 2001, J. of Geodynamics, 39,317-336. (PDF file, 1034 KB)

Park J., Song T.-R. A., Tromp J, Okal E., Stein S., Roult G., Clevede E., Laske G., Kanamori H., Davis P., Berger J., Braitenberg C., Van Camp M., Lei X., Sun H., Xu H., Rosat S. (2005) Earth’s free oscillations excited by the 26 December 2004 Sumatra – Andaman earthquake. Science, 308, 1139-1144. (PDF file, 589 KB)

Braitenberg C., Nagy I., Grillo B. (2005). Alcune informazioni  sulla stazione geofisica ipogea della Grotta Gigante (Carso Triestino). Progressione 52, ATTIVITA’ E RIFLESSIONI DELLA COMMISSIONE GROTTE “E. BOEGAN”, Supplemento semestrale ad “ATTI E MEMORIE”- Anno XXVIII, n.1-2, genn.-dic. 2005, 60-69.

Braitenberg C., Nagy I., Pinato-Gabrieli Ch., Zuliani D. (2005). Reliability enhancement of crustal deformation rates by joint study of geodetic and geologic/geomorphologic observations, GNGTS 2005, 24° Convegno Nazionale, 59-63.

Pinato Gabrieli Ch., Braitenberg C., Nagy I., Zuliani D. (2005). Tilting and horizontal movement at and across the northern border of the Adria Plate. In: IAG Symposium Jaèn, Spain, March 17-19, 2005, Volume 131, Geodetic deformation monitoring: From geophysical to engineering roles, (Eds. F. Sansò, A. J. Gil), Springer, New York, 129-136. (PDF file, 671 KB)

Braitenberg C., Romeo G., Taccetti Q., Nagy I. (2006) The very broad-band long-base tiltmeters of Grotta Gigante (Trieste, Italy): secular term tilting and the great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004. J. of Geodynamics, 41, 164-174.( PDF file, 738 KB) 

Zanolla C., Braitenberg C., Bernabini M., Bram K.,  Ebbing J., Götze H.-J., Giammetti S., Longoni R., Meurers B., Nicolich R., Palmieri F. (2006) New gravity maps of the Eastern Alps and significance for the crustal structures, Tectonophysics 414, 127-143. (PDF file, 1560 KB)

Ebbing J., Braitenberg C., Götze H.-J. (2006) The lithospheric density structure of the Eastern Alps,  Tectonophysics 414, 145-155. (PDF file, 1162 KB)

Braitenberg C., Wienecke S., Wang Y. (2006) Basement structures from satellite-derived gravity field: South China Sea ridge, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.111, B05. (PDF file, 3349 KB)

Braitenberg C., Zadro M. (2007). Comparative analysis of the free oscillations generated by the Sumatra-Andamans Islands 2004 and the Chile 1960 eatrhquakes, Bulletin of  the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 97, No. 1A, pp. S6–S17, January 2007, doi: 10.1785/0120050624. (PDF file, 144 KB) 

Wienecke S., Braitenberg C., Goetze H.-J. (2007) A new analytical solution estimating the flexural rigidity in the Central Andes,  Geophys. J. Int., 169, 789-794, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.3396.x. (PDF file, 504 KB)

Shin Y., Xu H., Braitenberg C., Fang J., Wang Y. (2007) Moho undulations beneath Tibet from GRACE-integrated gravity data, Geophys. J. Int., doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03457.x. (PDF file, 2168 KB)

Braitenberg C., Grillo B., Nagy I., Zidarich S., Piccin A. (2007) La stazione geodetico-geofisica ipogea del Bus de la Genziana - Pian Cansiglio. Atti e Memorie della Commissione Grotte "E. Boegan", 41, 105-120. (PDF file, 857 KB)

Ebbing J., Braitenberg C., Wienecke S. (2007) Insights into the lithospheric structure and the tectonic setting of the Barents Sea region from isostatic considerations, Geophys. J. Int., Vol. 171, pp.1390-1403, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03602 (PDF file, 1935 KB)

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